The term CPR stands for Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation and is essentially a medical procedure used in emergencies mainly to treat people who have gone into cardiac arrest.
The CPR emergency procedure requires rhythmic pressing of the patients chest area above where the heart is, and also the exhaling of air into the patients mouth. The aim of both these functions is to firstly manually try to pump the patients blood into their heart, and secondly to pass oxygen into the patients lungs and blood.
This last CPR function is called artificial respiration and aims to keep blood circulation going and to keep the brain and heart supplied with oxygenated blood. By doing this it is hoped the patient is saved from permanent brain damage.
CPR techniques should only be used in emergency situations and should only be performed for a limited amount of time, whilst urgent medical care is called for. Medical studies have shown that CPR is only effective if carried out within 7 minutes of cardiac arrest.
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Can be done on a PC or MAC.
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They only take about 2 hours to do.
Certificates can be printed out at the end of the course.
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What is CPR training
A CPR course will focus on demonstrating to rescuers the best methods to administer rescue breaths and also chest compressions to a patients who are unconscious, unresponsive and who have stopped breathing.
On a CPR training course you will learn how to:
Perform CPR on infants and adults alike.
Apply mouth to mouth rescue breathing and also chest compressions.
Identify if a individual is conscious or unconscious.
Check if a person is breathing or not by seeing if their chest is rising and also by listening for any breathing sounds through their nose or mouth.
Restore and encourage blood circulation in a person.
Roll or move a person into the correct position.
Open a persons airway by lifting their chin and pushing the forehead down.
Assist and restore breathing in a person.
Make sure a victims airway is open.
Monitor their breathing.
Provide rescue breathing.
Pinch a victims nose shut with your thumb and finger.
Avoid giving forceful or prolonged breaths.
Assist a person to sit up correctly and safely.
Locate the correct position to compress (between the rib cage and the middle of the chest).
Perform the correct amount of chest compressions at the required speed and rhythm.
Manually pump blood into and through the heart through artificial circulation.
Exhale into a person’s mouth.
Locate a persons pulse.
Check for signs of blood circulation.
Check a individual's skin color, moisture and temperature.
Use medical devices that will push air through a person’s mouth and into their lungs.
Perform artificial respiration that assists the flow of blood and air to a person’s heart and brain.
INFORMATION ABOUT CPR
What is cardiac arrest
This is a medical term used to describe a condition where a patients heart has stopped beating.
CRP training basics
Below is a very simple example of what CRP procedure involves. You should note that all CPR exercises can be physically demanding. The information below is only intended as a demonstration for those people who are learners and have no knowledge of first aid.
As when attending all emergency situations that require medical attention your first priority is to check for and make sure that the surroundings are safe for both the medical staff and the casualty.
You should then call a ambulance or other emergency services, so they can be on the way while you attend the patients.
After ensuring it is safe to proceed you should then aim to clear the casualty airway by tilting their head back and lifting their chin up.
For the next 10 seconds you should check for any signs of no breathing or agonal breathing.
If there is no breathing then you should at this stage kneel by the casualty and start place both your hands in the centre of the chest and press downwards. Each compression should be 4-5 cm down and you should do 30 compressions followed by 2 rescue breaths. After you have done this wait for the patients chest to rise back up before doing another compression.
Chest compressions should be given along with rescue breaths through the patients mouth. Do this by tilting the patients head back, pinch their nose, cover their mouth with yours and then breathe into their mouth until you see their chest rise. Aim to give two breaths, each breath you give should take no more than 1 second.
Continue with this procedure until professional medical help arrives.
After giving these two procedures look for signs of movement, breathing or coughing from the patient. A common complication arising from CPR is that the patient may start vomiting, if this happens then turn the patients head to one site and clean away any vomit.
How to evaluate whether a person is responsive:
Remember that a unresponsive or unconscious person will not be able to clear their throat, meaning death or serious injury if their airways become blocked.
They do not respond to activity, touch, sound, or other physical stimulation.
Look for signs of movement in their arms of legs.
Eye opening or movement.
Watching to see if their chest is rising and falling.
Gently shake the persons shoulders, a sleeping person will respond whereas a unconscious one will not.
Talk to them and ask questions, do they give coherent answers.
Do they appear disorientated and not able to recognize faces or individuals.
Reasons for a person being unresponsive
If the person is alone and unconscious you should assess the soroundings and try to ascertain what has happened. For instance look for sings of a fall, substance abuse, overdose, electrical accident, bang on the head etc.
Low blood sugar
Temporary low blood pressure.
Extreme warm weather or conditions.
A seizure due to a underlying medical condition i.e. diabetes.
The recovery position for a unconscious adult who is breathing
Remove any visible obstructions from their airway or mouth.
Place their arm that is nearest you at a right angle.
Grab their other arm and with the back of their hand against the side of their face.
Now grab their knee that is farthest away from you and pull it towards you, position this leg at a right angle. At the same time of doing all of this keep holding their arm against the site of their face.
Ensure that their airway it clear by tilting the head back and lifting their chin up. Check to make sure they are breathing.
What NOT to do to a unresponsive or unconscious person
Do not attempt to give them any food or drink.
Try not to leave them alone.
Get them to stand up.
Why CPR is important
If applied using the correct techniques, CPR can restore oxygen rich blood to the brain and heart.
CPR is useful in various emergency scenarios, including; Road Traffic Accidents, heart attacks and near drowning etc. For the best chances of success CPR must always be applied and used as quickly as possible.
CPR and medical terminology: BLS – Basic Life Support