These are letters that are written by jobseekers and then sent to potential employers who are not actually advertising jobs at the moment but who may do so in the future.
By contacting them in advance with a speculative covering letter and providing them with a CV, a candidate hopes to have a advantage over other candidates in any future vacancies.

Studies have shown that a significant number of jobs are never advertised publicly by companies and recruiters. Writing these letters is basically another proven and effective way of finding a job.

The advantage to a employer is that if they already have a CV bank of suitable candidates already on file then they do not need to advertise their jobs. So when a position comes up they will save time and money by not having to pay advertising or recruitment agency costs to fill it.

Finding employers to send your speculative covering letter to
After writing a professional cover letter you then have to make a list of businesses and organizations to send it to. It is important not to waste time by sending your letters to companies not related to your industry, so only apply to appropriate potential employers who are connected with your field of work.

The internet is a excellent source of finding related target companies to send your speculative applications to. Look for companies that are likely to advertise the sort of positions your after. Research these companies and find out what sort of vacancies they have advertised for in the past, or what sort of people they currently employ. Then if possible try to find a contact name of a decision maker in the Human Resources department so you can address your speculative covering letter and CV to them.

Writing a speculative covering letter
As mentioned above if possible try to address the letter to the person in charge of recruitment in your particular field. You are more likely to get a response this way rather than addressing a letter as ‘Dear Sir / Madam’.

The first thing to mention in your letter is why exactly you are writing to them. Explain that you are making enquiries about any present or future vacancies they have.

In your cover letter mention the sort of job roles that you are looking for, and also what has motivated you to write to them, then briefly list your skill sets and experiences. Focus on your work experience that demonstrate how you feel it could benefit their company.

To maintain the reader’s interest mention that you have researched their organization and know they are launching a new product or are opening a new branch or office etc.

Remember your aim is to get the employer to keep your CV on file and in their database. So mention this and ask them to see your attached CV and request they kindly keep it on file or invite you for a interview.

Each letter you write should be individually addressed and tailored to the company you are writing to.